Anthropogenic boron discharge threatens ecosystem health and water quality. Although boron is a micronutrient necessary for plants, animals, and humans, excessive concentrations can have toxic effects. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are two-dimensional anionic clay materials that exhibit intrinsic anion-exchange properties. In this paper, the use of LDH for the removal and recovery of boron species from water is presented. The main factors that affect boron removal, including the LDH dosage, initial boron concentration, solution pH, temperature, and the presence of other anions, are outlined. For boron removal, LDH containing Mg, Fe, Zn, or Ca cations have been mostly used owing to their limited toxicities and abundance in the environment. The boron removal capacity of LDH can be improved by transforming the layered structure into bimetallic oxides through calcination, increasing not only the surface area but also the interaction with anionic species during their regeneration. The main boron-removal mechanism of LDH is ion exchange with intercalated anions or the surface complexation with the surface groups of the LDH. A major advantage of using LDH for boron removal is the possibility of recovering and reusing the extracted boron. LDH synthesized with boron as the interlayer anion showed slow-release fertilizer properties, suggesting the use of boron-loaded LDH as plant growth regulators.