Increased environmental pollution is a critical issue that must be addressed. Photocatalytic, adsorption, and membrane filtration methods are suitable in environmental governance because of their high selectivity, low cost, environment-friendly nature, and excellent treatment efficiency. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) quantum dots (QDs) have been considered as photocatalysts, adsorbents, and membrane materials for wastewater treatments, owing to their stability, adsorption capacity, photochemical properties, and low toxicity and cost. This review summarizes g-C3N4 QD synthesis techniques, operating parameters affecting the removal performance in the treatment process, modification effects with other semiconductors, and benefits and drawbacks of g-C3N4 QD-based materials. Furthermore, this review discusses the practical applications of g-C3N4 QDs as adsorbents, photocatalysts, and membrane materials for organic and inorganic contaminant treatments and their valueadded product formation potential. Modified g-C3N4 QD-based material adsorbents, photocatalysts, and membranes present potentially applicable effects, such as removal of most waterborne contaminants. Excellent results were obtained for the reduction of methyl orange, bisphenol A, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, phenol, rhodamine B, E. coli, and Hg. Overall, this paper provides comprehensive background on g-C3N4 QD-based materials and their diverse applications in wastewater treatment, and it presents a foundation for the enhancement of similar unique materials in the future.