Mycotoxins in food are hazardous for animal and human health, resulting in food waste and exacerbating the critical global food security situation. In addition, they affect commerce, particularly the incomes of rural farmers. The grave consequences of these contaminants require a comprehensive strategy for their elimination to preserve consumer safety and regulatory compliance. Therefore, developing a policy framework and control strategy for these contaminants is essential to improve food safety. In this context, sensing approaches based on metal-organic frameworks (MOF) offer a unique tool for the quick and effective detection of pathogenic microorganisms, heavy metals, prohibited food additives, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), toxins, veterinary medications, and pesticide residues. This review focuses on the rapid screening of MOF-based sensors to examine food safety by describing the main features and characteristics of MOF-based nanocomposites. In addition, the main prospects of MOF-based sensors are highlighted in this paper. MOF-based sensing approaches can be advantageous for assessing food safety owing to their mobility, affordability, dependability, sensitivity, and stability. We believe this report will assist readers in comprehending the impacts of food jeopardy exposure, the implications on health, and the usage of metal-organic frameworks for detecting and sensing nourishment risks.