PublicationWater Advanced Treatment & Environmental Research Laboratory

Catalytic activation of hydrogen peroxide by Cr₂AlC MAX phase under ultrasound waves for a treatment of water contaminated with organic pollutants
First author
Monireh Alimohamadi
Samira Arefi-Oskoui, Behrouz Vahid, Yasin Orooji
Corresponding author
Alireza Khataee, Yeojoon Yoon
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
This study aims to investigate the sonocatalytic activation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) using Cr₂AlC MAX phase prepared by the reactive sintering process. The hexagonal structure of the crystalline MAX phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the compacted layered structure of the MAX phase was observed via scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Under the desired operating conditions, Cr₂AlC MAX phase (0.75 g/L) showed suitable potential to activate H₂O₂ (1 mmol/L) under sonication, thereby allowing a considerable removal efficiency for various organic pollutants, including dimethyl phthalate (69.1%), rifampin (94.5%), hydroxychloroquine (100%), and acid blue 7 (91.5%) with initial concentration of 15 mg/L within 120 min of treatment. Kinetic analysis proved that the degradation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics. Scavenging tests demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen were effective species during degradation. Furthermore, a probable mechanism for dimethyl phthalate degradation was suggested according to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. The obtained results confirmed the capability of the triple Cr₂AlC/H₂O₂/US process as a promising method for treating contaminated water.